North West Geography

Volume 10, 2010

The ‘Meteorological Imaginations and Conjectures’ of Benjamin Franklin

Richard J. Payne,
Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University,
Geography, School of Environment and Development,
University of Manchester.

Abstract
On the 22nd December 1784 an essay by the American polymath Benjamin Franklin was presented to a meeting of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. This extraordinary essay entitled ‘Meteorological Imaginations and Conjectures’ contains a variety of remarkable ideas which have since been supported by modern geographical research. In particular Franklin’s speculation that the cold year of 1783-4 might be related to a massive volcanic eruption in Iceland or the impact of extra-terrestrial bodies was the first time that volcanoes and meteors had been suggested as a cause of climate change. Franklin’s essay forms a milestone in geographical thought but is little known among most geographers. Here Franklin’s essay is reprinted in full and placed into its context, both historically and in the light of current scientific knowledge..

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The use of a field open-sided direct shear box for the determination of the shear strength of shallow residual and colluvial soils on hillslopes in the south Pennines, Derbyshire.

M. Cross,
Scott Wilson Limited.

Abstract
Engineering drawings are provided for a field open-sided direct shear box with a basal shearing area of 300mm x 300mm and two 300mm x 150mm side shearing areas, following the design of Chandler et al. (1981). Lead blocks are used to provide normal loads simulating natural geostatic pressures and a shearing force is provided by a winch/cable system. The field open-sided direct shear box was used to determine the effective angle of shearing resistance and the effective cohesion of shallow residual and colluvial soils on hillslopes in the south Pennines, Derbyshire. The field open-sided direct shear box is appropriate for determining the effective shear strength of shallow residual and colluvial soils on hillslopes as it incorporates the pedogenic and biogenic structural discontinuities and compositional inhomogeneities which are not represented adequately in standard laboratory direct shear strength and other conventional in situ field shear strength testing apparatus.

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Continuing Change: Manchester Geographical Society, 1998-2010

Paul Hindle,
Hon Secretary, Manchester Geographical Society.

Abstract
This article details the changes which have happened in the Manchester Geographical Society in the thirteen years up its change of charitable status in 2010. The principal topics are lectures, grants, journal and finances.

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Reviews

Mapping Saddleworth, Volume I: Printed Maps of the Parish, 1771-1894

Mapping Saddleworth, Volume II: Manuscript Maps of the Parish, 1625-1822

A History of Manchester, (2nd edition, 2010)

Paul Hindle,
Manchester Geographical Society.

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Evidence for former glacial lakes in the High Peak and Rossendale Plateau areas, north west England

C. A. Delaney,
Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University.
E. J. Rhodes,
Department of Earth and Space Science, University of California, Los Angeles.
R. G. Crofts,
British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham.
C. D. Jones,
Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University.

Abstract
This paper discusses the evidence for the existence of ice-contact lakes around Rawtenstall in the Rossendale Forest and the Goyt valley and its tributaries in the High Peak during the last (Devensian) glaciation. Morphological evidence for shorelines and overflow channels exists, but is of limited value and cannot be dated. However, evidence from archive borehole records and new boreholes indicates that lake sediments occur extensively in both areas and contain rhythmically laminated silt and clay which is likely to be varved. The High Peak Lake formed in a proglacial position and was short-lived due to rapid ice retreat. However, Lake Rawtenstall was a lateral ice-contact lake and is likely to have existed for much longer; sediments here could potentially be used to construct a varve chronology which spans the last Glacial Maximum.

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Volume 20, Number 1, 2020

Thomas A.G. Smyth, Ella Thorpe and Paul Rooney,
Blowout Evolution Between 1999 and 2015 in Ainsdale Sand Dunes
National Nature Reserve, England.

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Volume 19, Number 2, 2019

Rory Scott and Neil Entwistle,
Toward a protocol for UAV surveying in Environmental Sciences.

Philip D. Hughes, Matt D. Tomkins and Andrew G. Stimson,
Glaciation of the English Lake District during the Late-glacial: a new analysis using 10Be and Schmidt hammer exposure dating.

Volume 19, Number 1, 2019

P J Murphy,
The Vaccary Walls of Wycoller, Pennine East Lancashire – a geologist’s view.

Paul Hindle,
Book Review. Manchester – Mapping the City, T. Wyke, B. Robson & M. Dodge.

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Volume 18, Number 2, 2018

Brian Robson,
Mapping the Rise and Fall of Ancoats Hall.

William J. Fletcher and Peter A. Ryan,
Radiocarbon constraints on historical peat accumulation rates and atmospheric deposition of heavy metals at Holcroft Moss, Warrington.

Volume 18, Number 1, 2018

Michael Hardman, Rebecca St. Clair, Richard Armitage, Veronica Barry, Peter Larkham and Graeme Sherriff,
Urban agriculture: evaluating informal and formal practices.

Samantha Wilkinson and Catherine Wilkinson,
‘Working from home’: academics and Airbnb, an autoethnographic account.

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Volume 17, Number 2, 2017

K. R. Butt and P. D. Putwain,
Earthworm community development in organic matter-amended plots on reclaimed colliery spoil.

Jonathan Lageard, Lizzie Bonnar, Thomas Briggs, Simon Caporn, Emma Clarke, Chris Field, Callum Hayles, Anna Keightley, Graham Smith, Lydia McCool, Peter Ryan and Tor Yip,
Educational potential of peatlands and prehistoric bog oaks in Lancashire and adjoining region.

Brian Robson and Nick Scarle,
Bury in 1831: a newly-discovered early plan of the town.

Jennifer O’Brien,
A–Level Geography Workshop — a funding report.

Volume 17, Number 1, 2017

Richard Payne
Fieldwork is good – but why?

Kathy Burrell,
Stories from “The World in One City”: Migrant Lives in Liverpool.

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Volume 16, Number 1, 2016

Cathy Delaney and Oliver Sikora,
Evidence for Paleolake Rawtenstall around Stacksteads, Upper Irwell Valley, Rossendale, U.K.

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Volume 15, Number 2, 2015

Rodolfo Alves da Luz, Nigel Lawson, Ian Douglas and Cleide Rodrigues,
Historical sources and meandering river systems in urban sites: the case of Manchester, UK.

Volume 15, Number 1, 2015

Irene Delgado-Fernandez, Matthew McBride, Rachel Platt and Mark Cameron,
Sefton Coast’s vulnerability to coastal flooding using DEM data.

Simon J. Cook, Toby N. Tonkin, Nicholas G. Midgley and Anya Wicikowski,
Analysis of ‘hummocky moraine’ using Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry

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Volume 14, Number 1, 2014

Peter Wilson and Tom Lord,
Towards a robust deglacial chronology for the northwest England sector of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet.

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Volume 13, Number 2, 2013

Brian Robsom,
John Wood’s town plans and the evolving urban hierarchy of Cumbria.

Volume 13, Number 1, 2013

Peter Wilson,
Did a glacier exist in the valley of Bleatarn Gill, central Lake District, during the Loch Lomond Stade?

Mark Toogood and Hannah Neate,
Preston Bus Station: Heritage, Regeneration, and Resistance

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Volume 12, Number 1, 2012

Claire Smith and Nigel Lawson,
Exceeding climate thresholds: Extreme weather impacts on the environment and population of Greater Manchester.

Philip D. Hughes, Roger J. Braithwaite, Cassandra R. Fenton and Christoph Schnabel,
Two Younger Dryas glacier phases in the English Lake District: geomorphological evidence and preliminary 10Be exposure ages.

Jonathan Darling, Ruth L Healey and Lauren Healey,
Seeing the City anew: Asylum Seeker perspectives of ‘belonging’ in Greater Manchester.

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Volume 11, Number 2, 2011

Peter Wilson,
Re-interpretation of the ‘relict protalus rock glacier’ at Grasmoor End, northwest Lake District.

Volume 11, Number 1, 2011

Ramirez, F. A., Armitage, R. P., Danson, F. M., and Bandugula, V.,
Characterising phenological changes in North West forests using terrestrial laser scanning: some preliminary results.

Peter Wilson,
The last glacier in Dovedale, Lake District.

Colin Richards,
Thomas Jeffery’s Map of “The County of Westmoreland” (1770): an evaluation of its contribution to understanding late eighteenth century landscape.

Richard J. Payne,
Meteors and perceptions of environmental change in the annus mirabilis AD1783-4.

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Volume 10, Number 2, 2010

Richard J. Payne,
The ‘Meteorological Imaginations and Conjectures’ of Benjamin Franklin.

M Cross,
The use of a field open-sided direct shear box for the determination of the shear strength of shallow residual and colluvial soils on hillslopes in the south Pennines, Derbyshire.

Paul Hindle,
Continuing change: Manchester Geographical Society, 1998-2010.

Paul Hindle,
Book reviews.

Volume 10, Number 1, 2010

C. A. Delaney, E. J. Rhodes, R. G. Crofts, and C. D. Jones,
Evidence for former glacial lakes in the High Peak and Rossendale Plateau areas, north west England.

Go to Volume 10

Volume 9, Number 2, 2009

Gary Warnaby,
Changing Representation of the Industrial Town: an analysis of official guides in Bury from 1925.

Derek Antrobus,
Three Stories of Salford: transformation, identity and metropolitan peripheries.

Volume 9, Number 1, 2009

Chris Perkins,
Placing golf.

Ian Whyte,
The Impact of Parliamentary Enclosure on a Cumbrian Community: Watermillock, c. 1780-1840.

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Volume 8, Number 2, 2008

Charles Rawding,
Changing Land Use in North East Lancashire during the Second World War.

Volume 8, Number 1, 2008

Mervyn Busteed,
Celebrating St. Patrick’s Day in Irish Manchester, 1825-1922.

Nigel Lawson and Sarah Lindley,
A deeper understanding of climate induced risk to urban infrastructure: case studies of past events in Greater Manchester.

Chris Perkins and Martin Dodge,
The potential of user-generated cartography: a case study of the OpenStreetMap project and Mapchester mapping party.

S. Watkins and I. Whyte,
Extreme flood events in upland catchments in cumbria since 1600: the evidence of historical records.

Andrew M. Folkard,
Temperature structure and turbulent mixing processes in Cumbrian lakes.

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Volume 7, Number 2, 2007

Richard D. Knowles and Adwoa A. Ametepe,
Bus Patronage, Bus Deregulation and Ten Year Transport Plan Targets in Gateway Cities: the case of Greater Manchester and Merseyside.

Volume 7, Number 1, 2007

Kevin R. Butt and Emma J. Chamberlain,
Distribution of earthworms across the Sefton Coast sand dune ecosystem.

Peter Wilson,
Kirkby Fell rock slope failure.

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Volume 6, Number 1, 2006

Charles Rawding,
East Lancashire housing markets.

Fabienne Carraz, Kevin G. Taylor, Stefan Stainsby and Davina Robertson,
Contaminated urban road deposited sediment (RDS), Greater Manchester, UK: a spatial assessment of potential surface water impacts.

Human or Physical? People and Places of Edge Hill,
New Book.

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Volume 5, Number 1, 2005

David W. Shimwell,
Evidence for the vegetation and habitat of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in the Loch Lomond stadial of north-west England.

Paul Hindle,
The tram roads of the Manchester Bolton & Bury canal

Chris Perkins and Anna Z.Thomson,
Mapping for health: cycling and walking maps of the city.

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Volume 4, Number 1, 2004

Paul Hindle,
Large scale plans of Manchester.

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Volume 3, Number 2, 2003

Richard D. Knowles and Adwoa A. Kevin R. Butt, Christopher N. Lowe and Tim Walmsley,
Monitoring earthworm communities in translocated grasslands affected by the construction of Runway 2 at Manchester Airport.

Volume 3, Number 1, 2003

Charles Rawding,
Agricultural practices and state intervention during the Second World War: a case study of South West Lancashire.

Dawn Nicholson,
Breakdown mechanisms and morphology for man-made rockslopes in North West England.

Catherine Delaney,
The last glacial stage (the Devensian) in North West England.

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Volume 2, Number 2, 2002

Ian Whyte,
Whose Lake District? Contested landscapes and changing sense of place.

Chris Perkins,
Tactile mapping quality: the Manchester experience.

Paul Hindle,
Ordnance Survey 25 inch Maps of Lancashire.

Chris Perkins,
Stockport Green A-Z, Section 1: Brinnington, Reddish and the Heatons.

Volume 2, Number 1, 2002

Richard Phillips,
Exploring an imperial region: North West England.

A. D. Thomas, A. J. Dougill, K. Berry and J. A. Byrne,
Soil crusts in the Molopo Basin, Southern Africa.

M. E. J. Cutler, J. McMorrow and M. Evans,
Remote sensing of upland peat erosion in the southern Pennines.

Paul Hindle,
The North West in Maps: Thomas Donald’s map of Cumberland, 1774.

Wilfred H. Theakstone,
‘Manchester’ by Clare Hartwell.

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Volume 1, Number 2, 2001

G. L. Heritage, A. Chappell and A. D. Thomas,
A field-based approach to integrating catchment and river channel processes.

Catherine Delaney,
Esker formation and the nature of deglaciation: the Ballymahon Esker, Central Ireland.

Mervyn Busteed,
Research report on Irish Nationalist Processions in late nineteenth and early twentieth century Manchester.

Paul Hindle,
The North West in Maps: Ordnance Survey 25 inch maps – Rochdale (South), 1908.

Volume 1, Number 1, 2001

Mark Banks,
Representing regional life: the place discourses of Granada Tonight.

Andrew J. Dougill and Matt Stroh,
Recreational users of Lake District bridleways: conflict or camaraderie?

Mervyn Busteed,
”I shall never return to Hibernia’s bowers“ Irish migrant identities in early Victorian Manchester.

Laura Shotbolt, Andrew D. Thomas, Simon M. Hutchinson and Andrew J. Dougill,
Reconstructing the history of heavy metal pollution in the southern Pennines from the sedimentary record of reservoirs: methods and preliminary results.

Paul Hindle,
The influence of the Gay Village on migration to central Manchester.

Paul Hindle,
The North West in Maps: Ordnance Survey One Inch Maps – Rossendale 1895.

Go to Volume 1